Publication in Photovoltaics International

The key to efficient and powerful modules is an optimal cell-to-module (CTM) ratio. Interconnecting solar cells and integrating them into a solar module comes along with different optical and electrical effects. A profound understanding of all factors which influence the module efficiency is essential to derive methods to decrease the losses or to increase the gains caused by module integration. Several CTM calculation methods have been published in the past, mostly not available to a wide number of users in the form of a user-friendly tool.

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