Cell to Module Analysis by Fraunhofer ISE
SmartCalc.CTM is a tool for the fast and precise calculation of cell-to-module gains and losses for solar modules.

The combination of sophisticated scientific models with an intuitive graphical user interface allow quick,
easy and accurate calculations of CTM losses for a wide range of module concepts and materials.
Features Benefits


We will be attending several trade fairs and conferences this year.
Use the opportunity to learn more about SmartCalc.CTM, get a live demonstration or meet the development team. Contact us for more details.

  • 7th SiliconPV, 03.04.2017 - 05.04.2017, Freiburg (Germany)
  • SolarEx, 06.04.2017 - 08.04.2017, Istanbul (Turkey)
  • 11th SNEC, 19.04.2017 - 21.04.2017, Shanghai (China)
  • Intersolar Europe, 31.05.2017 - 02.06.2017, Munich (Germany)
  • 44th PVSC, 25.06.2017 - 30.06.2017, Washington D.C. (USA)
  • 33rd PVSEC, 25.09.2017 - 29.09.2017, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


Conferences, Publications and Trade Fairs - 29.03.2017
We will present Smartcalc.CTM and some of its new features next week in Freiburg.
Also visit our booth at the SNEC in Shanghai and plan your trip to the IEEE PVSC in Washington D.C. to follow our presentation on the CTM of shingled modules, junction box loss analysis and electrical mismatch.

Shingled Modules - 09.03.2017
Modules with shingled solar cells can be analyzed now. Also paralell string interconnection is now possible. Contact us for more information.

Load Spectral Data - 07.03.2017
Loading spectral data of materials is now easier. Ask us for details.


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Calculate and analyse the cell-to-module performance of your solar module.
Create new module setups or evaluate the effect of different materials on module efficiency and power.
Save prototyping effort and reveal hidden potentials.



Save prototyping effort and harvest efficiency potentials of your solar module. Focus on important factors and accelerate your product development.



Perform detailed analyses of gain and loss factors with precise calculation models. SmartCalc . CTM is a validated tool, reviewed and verified with measurements by Fraunhofer ISE Callab PV modules.



Profit from full support by Fraunhofer ISE. Gain access to more than 35 years of expertise and high precision equipment at Europe's largest solar energy research institute.



Calculate CTM-factors for common and new module concepts. Change materials, solar cells or properties of components and immediately see the effect on module efficiency and power.

  • intuitive use through graphical interface
  • high-flexibility for a wide range of PV-technologies
  • predefined or customized materials with easy import function
  • load, create and save module setups or materials
  • no data transfer or web services. No need to disclose your IP.
  • validated models with high precision: less than 2% deviation
  • full support: science database, help functions and direct contact
  • front or back glasses of variable thickness and optical properties
  • encapsulation materials with different transmittance and UV-cut-offs
  • opaque or transparent backsheets with different reflectance
  • variable cell sizes and geometries in full or pseudo square format
  • front-back or back-contact (MWT, IBC)
  • variable geometry and position of busbars or pads
  • rectangular ribbons or round wire interconnection
  • soldering or electrical conductive adhesives
  • interconnection with variable number of ribbons
  • IBC interconnection, conductive backsheets and shingled cells in development
  • cell and string spacing
  • module border width
  • number of cells and strings

Graphical User Interface

SmartCalc . CTM saves time and is comfortable.
Don't use complicated tools, confusing Excel-sheets or even several separate tools.
Use the intuitive GUI of SmartCalc . CTM with convenient access to complete and precise CTM-analyses.

detailed CTM-analysis

power and efficiency from cell to module

user friendly interface

comfortable GUI and reliable results

extended help and support

FAQ, manuals, scientific database, support


Save costs, improve power and raise efficiency.
With SmartCalc.CTM a simple, fast and precise tool for your solar module optimization is available.

Save effort and improve performance.

  • Reduces expensive prototyping with precise efficiency calculation.
  • Improve module performance by optimal selection of materials.
  • Focus on important factors and avoid unnecessary development.
  • Check for efficiency potentials and reassess your module design.
  • Evaluate new concepts and compare them with existing technologies. Even before the first prototype.


Pilot your product development.

  • Fast analysis of new concepts and components allow quick reactions to new market situations.
  • Evaluate materials within minutes and see the impact on power and efficiency.
  • Stop wasting time with complicated, isolated or incomplete tools.
  • Don't reveal your secrets: No web-based services required.
  • Profit from Fraunhofer ISEs compentence in development, characterization and testing of PV technologies.


SmartCalc.CTM answers critical questions.

  • What's the best encapsulation material for the solar cell?
  • Are there additional gains with reflecting ribbons?
  • Can the 300 W benchmark be reached with the available cells?
  • How large is the effect of switching to a black backsheet?
  • Can I improve my module with round wire interconnectors or five-busbar-cells?
  • Is it worth to use thinner glass?


SmartCalc . CTM is beeing developed by the team Module Efficiency and New Concepts at Fraunhofer ISE.
All work is backed up by several years of experience, Fraunhofer ISEs Module-TEC and the Testlab PV Modules.

Matthieu Ebert

Head of Team
"Module Efficiency and New Concepts"

Max Mittag

Scientific Development, Design

Tobias Zech

Software & GUI Development

Martin Wiese

Scientific Development, Validation

Contact Us

Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems
Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
Division Photovoltaic Modules, Systems and Reliability